FAQs & Fatwas Fasting & Ramadan

Does Every Pregnant Woman Have to Make Up Her Fasts from Ramadan?

Originally Posted at Safa Center

https://stocksnap.io/photo/FDKN607NRJQuestion:

How much is the fidya for a person who cannot fast? What do I do if I am pregnant and/or nursing and cannot fast? Do I make it up, pay fidya, or both?

Answer:

Fidya is an amount of money or food that is paid to the poor by the one who is not able to fast. It applies to those who have enduring medical conditions that make them unable to fast currently AND in the future. Such a person would pay fidya equivalent to feeding a poor person two meals for each day of fasting they have missed. The dollar amount of this will vary depending on where the person lives and what they are feeding the poor person, but it is generally estimated at around 10-15 dollars per day of fasting missed. If their medical condition is not lasting or they can make up the days when the days are shorter, they would make up the days rather than paying the fidya. For a pregnant or nursing woman, there are some details to mention and there are many differences of opinion among the scholars as to how and when she should make up the fasts or pay the fidya. Basically, if she is expected to miss only one Ramadan of fasting then she would make up the days that she missed by simply fasting them when she is able to. If she is expected to miss more than one Ramadan in a row, either because of pregnancy and then nursing or back to back pregnancies then she can pay fidya for each day of fasting that she has missed and she does not need to make the days up later.

Shaykh Osman Umarji has written a short research about this which I am including here for the general benefit.


Fasting and Fidya Regarding the Pregnant and Breastfeeding Mother

By Osman Umarji

A common question and concern for Muslim women has been the rules regarding fasting and making up fasts or paying fidya during pregnancy and breastfeeding. There are numerous classical answers amongst the major scholars and companions. It should be made clear that there is one primary cause for these differences that will help us understand the issue.

Should the pregnant and breastfeeding mother be compared with the temporarily sick, who has to make up his fasts after Ramadan, or should she be compared with the elderly or chronically sick who are incapable of fasting and pay fidya (feeding a poor person) in place of fasting, or should she be compared to both?

Some Major Opinions on the Issue:

  1. She should both make up her missed fasts and pay fidya.
  2. She should only make up her missed fasts.
  3. She should only pay the fidya.
  4. Differentiate between the two: The pregnant woman has to make up her fasts, and the breastfeeding mom should make up her fasts and pay fidya.

My Preferred Opinion:

Generally, the fidya is considered to be the equivalent of fasting (badl) and it is not normal in fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence) for one to have to perform the wajib (obligatory) and its equivalent (badl). Thus, it should be either fasting or fidya, and not both.

The reason that women are allowed a concession to not fast in Ramadan is out of concern for their health and well-being. If a woman wants to fast during her pregnancy and breastfeeding, she should consult her doctor to see if fasting during pregnancy or breastfeeding would be ok for her and her child. If the doctor approves, the woman may fast Ramadan or even parts of it (as long as she has the energy and health). However, even if the doctor gives his ok, but the woman is still concerned and scared, she may skip fasting Ramadan.

In regards to atoning for the missed fasts, there are a few considerations.

If a breastfeeding mother is concerned for her or her child’s health (like her milk running dry, her feeling weak, the baby not getting enough nutrition), then she may elect to pay the fidya for each day she missed and that would be sufficient. She would NOT have to make up any fasts. This applies to days she missed during pregnancy and breastfeeding.

However, if after delivering, she does not breastfeed her child and her health is okay, then she should make up her fasts that she missed during pregnancy.

Thus, the breastfeeding woman is compared to someone with continuous hardship in fasting (since she may not have fasted for one year during pregnancy, and 1-2 years of breastfeeding, and if she gets pregnant again this process would continue longer), while the mother who does not breastfeed is more like someone who was temporarily sick (her pregnancy) and capable of making up her fasts later.

About the author

Jamaal Diwan

Jamaal Diwan

Jamaal Diwan was born and raised in Southern California and received a Bachelor’s Degree in Third World Studies and a minor in Psychology from the University of California, San Diego . He accepted Islam in 2003 and has been married to his wife, Muslema Purmul, since 2004. He has served with the Muslim Student Association (MSA), MSA West, and Muslim American Society (MAS) at varying capacities. He remains an active MAS member and is a scholarship student with the Islamic American University. Jamaal is a graduate of the Faculty of Shariah at al-Azhar University in Cairo and has done some graduate work in Islamic Studies from the Western academic perspective. He recently finished serving as the Resident Scholar at the Islamic Center of Irvine (ICOI).

1 Comment

  • AssalaamuAlaikum,
    Could you please clarify at what point this fatwa can be applied?
    The article states if a women can ‘expect’ to miss multiple Ramadhans, they can pay fidya. But surely you only knows if you will miss more than one, when you actually have, not before? So it can only be applied in retrospect?
    Even with the best intensions to nurse a child, not everyone ends up breastfeeding, or will stop breastfeeding before the child is 1yr. Sometimes through reasons entirely out of their control. Similarly you may intend to become pregnant again immediately after giving birth, therefore missing two or more ramadhans, but Allah has other plans and you don’t conceive until 18 months later, for example.
    So at what point do you change your intentions from intending to be catagorised as temporary and making them up by fasting, to making them up by paying fidya. Can the decision only be made for certain, rather than likely hood, in retrospect, once you have missed two ramadhans?
    JazakuAllah Khyar

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