Fasting & Ramadan

T30X: Taqwa in 30 days – Xtreme

Originally Posted August 2011

A Look into the Secret of Ramadan and Fasting


Fasting is a devotional act performed by the followers of many religions. Christians, Jews, and Muslims all believe in the fundamental act of fasting, although they differ regarding its definition and details. The Qur’an and Sunnah (practice of the Prophet ﷺ, peace be upon him) affirm this fact, and provide a complete narrative regarding the history, purpose, and method of fasting. Fasting is an essential pillar of Islam, as clearly stated in the Prophetic narrations (hadith) and the Qur’an. At face value, it is an external act, but in reality its purpose is primarily to influence and affect the internal.  Although fasting is always encouraged and recommended, God has chosen a specific month where man has been commanded to fast and advised to perform a number of additional devotional acts. As will become apparent, in the fasting of Ramadan, Islam has transformed fasting from a simple, personally beneficial act into a complete, intensive program designed to transform man’s character and his relationship with God and His creation. This fundamental pillar of Islam should be understood as an institution providing education, training, social programming, and spiritual and character development.

What is Fasting?

The Arabic term sawm linguistically means to refrain or abstain from something. Mary, the mother of Jesus, uses the word sawm when her people ask about her pregnancy:

“[…] ‘Indeed, I have vowed to the Most Merciful [God] abstention, so I will not speak today to [any] man,’” (Qur’an, 19:26).

The translation of this verse shows Mary’s linguistic use of the word. Here, we clearly see the literal meaning of the term sawm being used to describe Mary’s abstinence from speaking to anyone until after Jesus was born (so she wouldn’t have to defend herself from any allegations). The Arabs would also use the term when referring to a horse that refrained from running. It is from this linguistic root that Islam then religiously referred to fasting as a particular type of abstinence during a particular time period by a particular individual. This definition concisely states that fasting requires an intention to refrain from food, drink, and intercourse from the break of dawn until sunset. Furthermore, the individual who fasts must be in a state in which fasting is permissible for him. Although this explanation of fasting is what all Muslims do today, Islam acknowledges that other faiths and even the Prophet ﷺ and his companions initially fasted in a different way. This will be explained later in the history of fasting. However, what is important to understand is the purpose behind fasting, which will be discussed in the following section.

The Obligation and Purpose of Fasting

Fasting is always something commendable and recommended in Islam, and it has a clearly defined purpose. God says, “O you who have believed, decreed upon you is fasting as it was decreed upon those before you so that you may be protected through righteousness [achieve taqwa]” (Qur’an, 2:183). This verse states both the command to fast as well as the purpose of fasting: to attain taqwa (God consciousness). However, it does not state the exact time period, as this is explained in the following verses. God explains in the Qur’an that fasting is prescribed for a limited number of days, which He then explains as being in the month of Ramadan (2:183-185). He confirms the obligation to fast this month by stating, “[…] So whoever sights [the new moon of] the month, let him fast it […]” (Qur’an, 2:185).

The natural question that comes to mind is what is the meaning of taqwa? What is the aim of fasting? The term linguistically implies protecting and saving one’s self from harm. Possessing taqwa is also expressed as being God-conscious, pious, in awe of God, and being careful not to do anything contrary to what God loves. In regards to its meaning as the purpose behind fasting, taqwa means to protect one’s self. This protection is two-fold: protection from God’s punishment and displeasure by attaining a state of God-consciousness, awe, piety, and love for what God loves; secondly, to protect one’s self from the harms of heedlessness, lack of discipline, enslavement to one’s desires, and poor character. The individual who has achieved taqwa reaches a lofty spiritual state that deserves God’s love, mercy, and His promise of Paradise.

Some of the Ambitions Behind Fasting

    1. Developing sincerity in our actions. Fasting is one of the most pure and sincere devotional acts since no one knows if you cheat while fasting.
    2. Purifying the soul from lowly character, which is often the result of being a slave to one’s carnal desires.
    3. It overpowers Satan and his attempts to deceive man.
    4. It serves as a means to God-consciousness and staying away from sins.
    5. Leads to being merciful and compassionate to the poor.

Background about Ramadan

The linguistic meaning of the word Ramadan comes from the root ramad implying extreme heat. It is suitable for the month of fasting, as the name of the month refers to the dryness of the mouth that one feels when thirsty.

It has been narrated that all the divinely revealed scriptures came down during the month of Ramadan. The Qur’an descended from the highest heaven to the lower heaven in Ramadan, and then the initial revelation to the Prophet ﷺ was also in Ramadan. This important fact is highlighted as God mentions in the Qur’an: “The month of Ramadan [is that] in which the Qur’an was revealed, as guidance for people…” Thus, it is of significance to mention that one of the main reasons we fast the month of Ramadan is out of reverence for the Qur’an and with the intention to renew our commitment to it. This is exemplified in the night prayer, tarawih, during which large portions of the Quran are read every night. It is as if God is commanding people to the fast Ramadan as an expression of gratitude for the gift of the Qur’an to mankind.

The History of Fasting

Fasting the month of Ramadan was made obligatory upon the Muslims in the 2nd year AH.1 Fasting was also something obligatory upon the previous Prophets and their people. The scholars differed though upon the nature of their fasting as well as the initial fasting of the Muslims before the 2nd year AH. A number of scholars stated that the prior generations were obligated to fast three days a month, and were not commanded to fast the month of Ramadan. Others stated that the prior generations were commanded to fast the month of Ramadan and that their fasting began after sleeping after the night prayer and lasted until the following evening.

In regards to the history of fasting during the life of the Prophet ﷺ, we find that God employed a gradual method to introduce fasting and altered its details until the final command and timings were solidified. The initial obligation was fasting three days a month. Then, the fasting of the 10th of Muharram (the day of `Ashura) was added as an obligation. Then, fasting the month of Ramadan was introduced; however, people were given the choice to either fast or to feed a poor person each day of the month. Then, fasting became obligatory upon those capable, and would start from the time one slept or after the evening prayer. Finally, the timing was changed to start at dawn and end at sunset.  These five stages show the gradual implementation, thus giving Islam a unique implementation of fasting different from other faiths.

The Ramadan Program

The month of Ramadan is intended to be a complete program for reformation of the mind, body, and soul. It includes a number of obligatory, recommended, and prohibited acts, all seeking to improve man’s character and relationship with God. When we see Ramadan as a program for purification, our attitude will be different. We will no longer see it as a difficult obligation whereby God is simply testing our ability to obey him, but rather as a unique opportunity to achieve a state of peace, spiritual and physical health, love for God, and realize our full potential in life. For if we see how capable we are of controlling our natural desires and pushing ourselves to higher limits in Ramadan, we will realize the strength we possess to achieve our highest ambitions in life.

When we seek to improve our physical health, we know we need to change our diet and exercise routine. We may consult a number of nutritionists and fitness experts to put together a program that will help us achieve our goals.  These programs often define essential foods that should be eaten and others that must be avoided, and exercises that must be performed daily or weekly. For example, a particular program may mandate eating a particular amount of proteins, limiting the amount of saturated fats, performing a defined number of push-ups and sit-ups, and running in the morning or evening. Interestingly, we find new programs every year, whether it be the latest diet fad or exercise routine. Some of these turn out to be of value, and people continuously invest their time and money in these fitness and health programs.

God has similarly given us the program of Ramadan, although its ambitions extend beyond mere physical health, and the Designer of the program possesses infinite knowledge. Ramadan is an intensive program designed by the Creator of mankind, who knows best how His creation should live and knows best what is beneficial to them. For this reason, we welcome Ramadan as an annual retreat and perfectly designed program; we recognize its ability to purify, reform, and improve ourselves through the acts that God has legislated for our benefit. It is thus the ultimate prescription and program for taqwa, the most noble goal and aim in life. By achieving this state of consciousness, we protect ourselves from harm in this life and the next.

An important point to be understood is that a particular program or medication doesn’t always feel or taste good immediately. The first few days, or weeks, of dieting and exercise can be extremely painful as one gets used to limiting his food intake, stressing his muscles, and dealing with the burn and soreness of working out. However, once he gets used to the program, he begins to notice improvements in his health and his body becomes accustomed to the new regiment. Another example of this initial discomfort is when a sick patient is given medication. The taste of the medication or food eaten may be bitter or sour, but the patient continues to take it knowing it is of extreme benefit. The reality may even be that the food or medicine prescribed is sweet, but due to his sickness everything tastes bland or bitter. Likewise, the initial adjustment period to fasting and the Ramadan program may be tiring and difficult, but we should always keep in mind that as we get used to it we will both enjoy it and tremendously benefit from it if performed properly.

10 High Priority Acts to be Performed in the Month of Ramadan:

    1. Recitation of the Qur’an (in Arabic)
    2. Studying the Qur’an (reading the translation and explanation)
    3. Tarawih Prayer (Recommended Ramadan prayers)
    4. Qiyam al-Layl (Voluntary night prayers)
    5. Performing all five prayers on time
    6. Praying in congregation when possible
    7. Refraining from lying, backbiting, gossiping, and cursing
    8. Refraining from excess television and social media
    9. Fixing our relationships with family and friends
    10. Giving as much charity as possible

  1. AH means after hijrah (migration), which refers to the migration of the Muslims from Makkah to Madina. []

About the author

Osman Umarji

Osman Umarji

Osman Umarji was born in West Los Angeles and graduated from the University of California Irvine in 2005 with a Bachelors in Electrical Engineering where he served as president of the Muslim Student Union. He worked as an engineer for four years, specializing in mobile communications. Osman moved with his wife to Cairo to pursue Islamic Studies and is currently majoring in Islamic Law and Legal Theory at Al-Azhar University. His areas of focus are Hadith and Legal Theory. His hobbies include reading, playing sports, and traveling. He previously served as the Director of the Islamic Society of Corona-Norco in Southern California. Osman can be reached at


  • Mashallah you really explained the significance of this month in the best manner! I found the 10 high priority acts to be performed during Ramadan especially helpful!

  • Nice article. One thing I thing I observed is the use of word God instead of Allah Subhana Watala. God is a pretty generic word and can be used by Muslims and non Muslims Polytheist). Don’t want to decrease the value of article by any means.

    • @Farooq… We as muslims generally feel stronger about the name ‘Allah’ then God, but ‘Allah’ isn’t or wasn’t copyrighted by muslims, and the Idol worshippers of the time of the Prophet (PBUH) and before acknowledged the existence of ‘Allah’ though they worshipped idols and other things alongside Him (SWT). Jews and Christians throughout the Arab world, now and over the past 14 plus centuries also refer to God as ‘Allah’, and even now commonly use phrases like ‘Masha’Allah’ and ‘Insha’Allah’. Now if you ask them to describe Allah and his attributes, then you will discover the difference between them and a muslim, but the word itself is used.

      @Osman Umarji… Nice article brother, May Allah reward you for it and help us to benefit from it!

  • The word “God” is very appropriate in terms of its meaning in English and its application in this article. Oftentimes we avoid the word fearing that it does not give the true meaning of “Allah”. This is simply not true. A very good reference to this point can be seen in an article written by Dr. Umar Farooq Abdullah entitled, “One God, Many Names.” It can be read online or downloaded from in the foundation papers section. Jazak Allahu Kheir for the beautifully written article. Ramadan Kareem to all.

  • Assalaamu alaikum,
    Many thanks for an excellent article. I would elevate the performance of 5 daily prayers on time to the number 1 spot in terms of priorities – it is Fard, and is applicable throughout the year – hence can provide a tangible indicator of how effective our Ramadaan was if it is sustained. For those already performing the prayers, Ramadan offers an opportunity to establish some of the Nafl acts with regularity post-Ramadaan.
    I especially like the inclusion of aspects of social responsibility, as all too often, we only see Ibadah as rituals, with no extension beyond the prayer mats…
    and Allah knows best.

  • Sorry the verse mentioned is for hazrat Maryam (why Muslims calling Hazrat Maryam with different name ?) ( object Azan to adahaan etc. )

    Also you must read the pervious Ayah to understand the subject of surah ( what it got to do with Ramzan?) tis ayah is in reference to Hazrat Maryam ,Allah Subhana Tala sent Hazrat Gibrail to comfort hazrat Maryam, please read from (19) ayah 18 to 40

    The History of Fasting:- only mentions Muslims? Contradicting the reference ayah.
    Fasting is one of the five pillars of Islam. As it is understood from the following verse in the Quran O you who believe! Prescribed for you is the Fast, as it was prescribed for those before you. (al-Baqara, 183), it had been prescribed for previous nations. The Prophet says the following in a hadith:

    Hazrat Nooh fasted the whole year except the first day of Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adha. (Ibn Majah, Siyam, 32, I, 547)

    It is stated in that hadith that fasting dates back to the time of Hazrat Nooh as. It is also understood from narrations that fasting was present in the Sharia’s of Hazrat Dawud as and Hazrat Musa as

  • Assalamu alaikum

    If I may ask a question, the article states that:
    “the fasting of the 10th of Muharram (the day of `Ashura) was added as an obligation”

    It’s not an obligation now though, so was it made an obligation and then made mustahhab?

    • Wasalaamualaykum,

      Yes, that is the opinion of many scholars. However, there are also scholars who stated it was never an obligation, and only recommended.

  • Asalaam alaikum, as a revert to Islam, each year my Christian parents find difficulty with understanding Ramadan, and why we fast, especially when our children try to keep all the days mashala. To the point where my mother doesn’t like us to visit in this blessed month as she sees it as cruel for the children! So I really appreciate this article as I will send it to them to read, and inshala it may help them to understand our beautiful Deen more fully. For me, the use of the word God here is appropriate as it will make it easier for them to read. Perhaps others could also use this article as a means of Dawah to non Muslim family/friends/colleagues? And may Allah swt open their minds and hearts to Islam, inshallah.

  • the article is good but i think u should say the muslim or humain being not man all of the practices should be done by both men and women

  • Assalamu alaikum,
    i have a question, how many rakat of Tarawih Prayer we should pray? some people pray 20, some will pray only it ok to pray 8 rakah?
    Jazak Allah Khayran

  • very good article written by the author .even Muslims , Jews , or christain have different religion but one thing is same in them that is humanity it is the duty of every human to be sincere with every one. i appreciate you that you have have discussed a very important issue in your article if you want to explore something more then visit to my site.

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