“And bow with those who bow…”

The Salah Series

Part I | Part II | Part III | Part IV | Part V | Part VI | Part VII | Part VIII | Part IX | Part X | Part XI | Part XII | Part XIII | Part XIV | Part XV | Part XVI | Part XVII | Part XVIII | Part XIX | Part XX | Part XXI | Part XXII | Part XXIII | Part XXIV | Part XXV | Part XXVI | Part XXVII | Part XXVIII

Rukoo`Rukoo’ (the bow): Internal Actions

Preparing ourselves for the prayer means realizing whom we are meeting with—Allah subhanahu wa ta`ala (exalted is He), our Lord, the Most Merciful of those who show mercy. We beautify ourselves externally because we are meeting with Allah, and we humble ourselves internally as we stand before the Most High. We stand between fear and hope, but the overwhelming emotion is love. When we recite Surat al-Fatiha (the Opener), we pause after every verse to reflect on it, knowing that Allah responds. When we recite a short surah (chapter) afterward, we recognize that these words are a message to us.

The External Acts of Rukoo’

When finish reciting the short surah after al-Fatiha, we should implement a very short pause just as the Prophet ﷺ did (as related by Abu Dawud), and then raise our hands to say, “Allahu Akbar (God is Greater).” Remember that between almost every change of position we say, “Allahu Akbar.” This is to remind ourselves and to alert us that Allah is greater than anything—whatever our mind is distracted with and whatever worries plague us. And then we bow down in rukoo’. When we bow down, we should emulate the actions of the Prophet ﷺ who said:

“When you make rukoo’, place your palms on your knees, then space your fingers out, then remain (like that) until every limb takes its (proper) place,” (Ibn Khuzaymah). In another narration, he added that we should straighten our backs (Abu Dawud).

Many of us rush our rukoo’ and sujood (prostration), but it is very important to give each action its due measure. The Prophet ﷺ once saw a man not completing the rukoo’ properly, and rushing his sujood such that he looked like he was pecking, and he said:

لو مات هذا لمات على غير ملة محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم مثل الذي لا يتم ركوعه وينقر في سجوده مثل الجائع يأكل التمرة والتمرتين لا تغنيان عنه شيئا

“Were this man to die in this state, he would die on a faith other than that of Muhammad—the likeness of one who does not make rukoo’ completely and pecks in his sujood is like the hungry person who eats one or two dates, which are of no use to him at all” (Tabarani).

Why did the Prophet ﷺ use such an example? Because we come to our prayer as people who are spiritually hungry and thirsty, looking for a refuge from the worries of the world. It does not make sense for a starving person to eat one or two dates if he has access to more; neither does it make sense for us to rush our rukoo’ and sujood.

Du`a’s (supplications) of Rukoo’

Just as we discussed previously that there are different opening du`a’s, there are also a variety of du`a’s of rukoo’. We should try to memorize them and vary what we say so that we are conscious of them and so they do not become words we simply repeat.

1- We should say three times:

سبحان ربي العظيم

Subhaana Rabbiy al-‘Adheem

“How Perfect is my Lord, the Supreme” (Ahmad, Abu Dawud).

When we say “Subhaan Allah” or “Subhaana Rabbiy,” we are disassociating Allah from any imperfection or impurity or from anything derogatory. And we say “Rabbiy” meaning “my Lord” in order to feel closeness to Him and love Him.


سبوح قدوس رب الملائكة والروح

Suboohun Qudoos, Rabb al-Mala’ikati wa al-Rooh

“Exalted, Pure, Lord of the Angels and the Spirit” (Muslim).

Subooh comes from the same root word of subhan, which is Sa-Ba-Ha, and is an aggrandizement of subhan, meaning the Exalted One who is praised and glorified extensively. It has been debated by scholars as to what the ‘Spirit’ refers; most have said that it refers to Jibreel `alahi al-salam (peace be upon him), others have said it is another great Angel, and others have said that it is a formidable being that not even the Angels can see. Allah knows best.


سبحانك اللهم وبحمدك اللهم اغفرلي

Subhaanak Allahuma wa bihamdik, Allahuma ighfirli

“How Perfect You are, O Allah. Praises are for You. O Allah, forgive me” (Bukhari, Muslim).

Next week, we will discuss the inner beauty of rukoo’ insha’ Allah (God willing).

About the author

Jinan Yousef

Jinan Yousef

Jinan's main interests within the field of Islamic Studies are the Names of Allah, the life and character of the Prophet ﷺ, tazkiya and Muslim personalities.


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